Login Register. Search the forums now! Welcome, Guest. Please login or register. User: Password: Login. Need EPI ideas! Please list any ideas which are practical, effective in obtaining results and relatively cost effective These ideas could help others! Simple pendulum: Effects of the length of the pendulum, mass of the bob, and amplitude of the swing on the period of the pendulum.

I done a prac with my mate last year. We calculated the friction force through using a cardboard at the end of the table making it give the rough surface and using dynamic carts along with the string acting as a tension and additional constant mass of grams if i can remember being attached to the dynamic cart. We too had to calculate the tension :S.

## Example Projects

I am going to do the exact same thing again with my friend again. No pun intended. Old Hollywood.

The fame. Respect: 0. Just some examples our teacher gave us. Also think about perhaps something to do with springs and transfer of energy etc. Coefficient of restitution R will not be constant Investigate why R varies in terms of energy loss.

Find how initial height affects this. Fire several different small projectiles on a level surface using the piston in a dynamics trolley. Repeat with 2 and 3 balls. What is the energy loss per collision? How does this change if 2, 3 balls are moving at once? Change the masses loaded onto 2 dynamics trolleys to see if this affected the elasticity of the collision. Keep speed of collision const. Keep masses constant and vary speed of collision. Ep, Ek, v, F. Our one was Plank of wood.

Fulcrum in the middle adjusted later on. One end is clamped to a spring two differing springs used and one end pulls a weight That's all I remember, can't remember what we calculated. Something to do with the wood, spring constants and the fulcrum positions. This was a draft of one of my motion experimental reports excluding results,observations etc. Quote from: yellowsone31 on March 14,pm.Email: rich ard walding. Tips on doing a Physics EEI? Energy output of a solar panel Photovoltaics PV is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect.

Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels comprising a number of cells containing a photovoltaic material. The Australian Government provides incentives for the use of PVs for both domestic and industrial use you can save money, and save the environment. Solar photovoltaics generates electricity in more than countries and, while yet comprising a tiny fraction of the GW total global power-generating capacity from all sources, is the fastest growing power-generation technology in the world.

Between andgrid-connected PV capacity increased at an annual average rate of 60 percent, to some 21 GW. A good EEI would be to measure current as a function of the angle of incidence of sunlight all within a short period of time eg 30 minutes ; measure current when collector is perpendicular to rays during the day how should that go?

But maybe you'll need to consider more than current; perhaps the power output is more important. If so, you could put a load on the circuit resistor and measure V and I. In the method shown below, Moreton Bay College students are measuring the effect of angle on the flow rate hence power output of a electrical water pump.

This was Year Energy output of a solar panel II You could also investigate the effect of shade on the output of a panel. In this photo, students are using layers 1, 2, 3 etc of shade cloth. It would also be interesting to see the effect of light of different wavelength to see if the solar cells are sensitive to all wavelengths.

You could use coloured cellophane - but then that reduces intensity and not all coloured cellophane has the same percentage transmission.

Lecture 01: Introduction and Fundamental Concepts - I

What to do? This limitation makes photovoltaic cells an unreliable source of power for unattended or remote devices, such as solar-powered traffic signs or NASA's Mars Rover. For large-scale solar plants to maintain their maximum efficiency, the photovoltaic cells must be kept clean, which can be a challenging task in dusty environments.

One good EEI would be to investigate the effect of dust on the solar panel. This is a harder EEI than the two above. It involves setting up a solar panel a short distance from an incandescent bulb eg 15 cm and adding controlled amounts of "dust" eg bentonite clay powder, fine sand, icing sugar to the face of the panel spread evenly.

It is a good idea to adjust the panel so it is working at maximum power. Do this by setting up the circuit on the left below, using either a variable resistor or fixed resistors that can be varied from 0 ohm to ohm. Plot a graph next figure to see the maximum power point. Then add the bentonite 0. A good article is in Physics EducationV45, Septemberpage In a close in binary star systems a sufficiently massive stars may explode as supernova and leave behind a neutron star, with a diameter of about the size of a city.

Later, as the system evolves, the smaller companion star may expand and transfer mass onto the neutron star, usually through an accretion disk. When the material finally arrives at the surface of the neutron star, it first collects up in a thin and highly compressed layer, usually about the hight of a three-story house, before it ignites nuclear burning in a flash that incinerates the matter within seconds, burning it to heavy elements.

These events, recurring on time-scales of hours to days, are known as Type I X-ray bursts. Despite these bursts arise from such a thin layer, they are so energetic that we can see them all the way across the galaxy. But whereas nuclear power and fusion on earth seems an incredibly powerful source of energy, releasing up to a few 0. So when such a nuclear-powered Type I burst goes off, it hardly has enough energy to blast off the surface of the neutron star - at least not in its entirety.

Some bursts, however, reach such high luminosity that they can blast off some of the material off the surface in the form of a "wind" - and may eject some of the newly synthesised material into the surrounding where it may be observable, due mostly to imprinting is signature on the light from the neutron star by absorbing some of the light, depending on its chemical composition. We may directly learn about the freshly synthesised material of the burst - material that otherwise would disappear inside the neutron star for good without us ever being able to directly observe it.

The goal of this project is to model such high-luminosity bursts with wind and expansion of the photosphere, using a 1-dimensional hydrodynamic stellar evolution code, Kepler. This may sound boring at first, but the code also follows an extended adaptive thermonuclear reaction network with some thousand nuclear species - as we do want to know what is being made and what is being ejected - and you can watch their evolution throughout the star as the simulation goes on.

You would run such models to explore different physical parameters of the system, such as accretion rate and composition of the accreted material, and follow each of system through several cycles of bursting, analysing the composition and amounts of material being ejected. These would be the first such models with detailed nucleosynthesis. Yu, N. A Partial coherence of waves can be detected by the visibility of fringes in a double-slit experiment.

In a qualitative sense, a large degree of coherence, such as from mono-chromatic laser light sources, creates highly visible fringes. On the contrary, a complete lack of coherence destroys all fringes and the visibility is accordingly zero. Correlations between two locations at two different times can be used to quantify varying degrees of coherence in a stochastic wave field.

### EPIs & Practical Activities

In-line holography typically analyses interference fringes imparted by specimens, which modulate incident wavefronts to create fine detail that develops as an exiting wave propagates in free space. By studying this detail in recorded intensities, the wavefront deformation can be quantitatively measured to infer spatially varying phase shifts created by specimens of interest.

Since partial coherence degrades the contrast in these fringes, such effects are often considered to be detrimental to in-line holography.

In prior work, we have theoretically studied how this holographic fringe information can be generically described in partially coherent and aberrated fields [1]. We have recently found an interesting way to exploit this diminishment of fringe contrast, using the intrinsic properties of partially coherent sources.

In the context of phase contrast imaging, we realized that this variation of contrast surprisingly encodes useful depth information about the specimen, which is tomographic in nature [2].You could be asked questions about the apparatus, methods, safety precautions, results, analysis and evaluation of these experiments.

There will be a number of different types of practical based questions. Some will be on the set required practicals, some will cover the working scientifically terms and some will be on other science practicals which you might have done in class. Use all the information given in the question particularly any diagrams to help you understand what the question is about.

A student investigated the efficiency of a motor using the equipment below:. He used the motor to lift a weight of 2. He measured the speed at which the weight was lifted and calculated the efficiency of the energy transfer. He repeated the experiment to gain two sets of data. Control variables are those kept the same to ensure a fair test. The second sentence in the question highlights two things he kept the same.

Two of the three points should be used from the list above to secure the total two marks. A student investigated how much energy from the Sun was incident on the Earth's surface at her location. She put an insulated pan of water in direct sunlight and measured the time it took for the temperature of the water to increase by 0.

The apparatus she used is shown in the diagram. Tick one box. The time taken for the water temperature to increase by 0. Write down the equation which links energy transferred, power and time.

Use the correct equation from the Physics Equation Sheet. Resolutions of 0. You must learn this equation for the exam. Show all steps of the calculation and include units in the answer.

As the question states, the equation can be copied directly from the Physics Equation Sheet. Write the equation out in full, and then show all stages of working out.To browse Academia.

The motion of an object is measured by its momentum. This is evident in everything from propulsion in planes to a bike tyre moving. Motion relies on external, applied forces, to accelerate an object. As long as ample forces are applied to the object mass, it will continue to accelerate.

Therefore, with higher acceleration, momentum will be transferred to the object faster. Sir Isaac Newton, is regarded as the greatest scientist and mathematician that ever lived National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Newton formulated and revolutionised key principals of Physics and Mathematics.

InNewton proposed three fundamental principles of motion; the first, second and third laws of motion. The first law of motion, more commonly known as the Law of Inertia, states that an object at rest, stays at rest, and an object in uniform motion, stays in motion, with the same speed and in the same direction, unless acted upon, by an unbalanced force The Physics Classroom. This law states that stationary objects will stay stationary, or objects in motion will continue in the same line of motion, unless external forces are applied.

An everyday example of this law applies to rocks. Once affected by an external force, the rock will continue to travel in the line of motion until gravity and friction from the air and one ground applies. Another common example of the law of motion effects transportation.

They will continue to travel at the original speed until they are stopped by their seatbelt or the by impacting on the dashboard and return to a stationary position. This law clearly states that the product of the acceleration and mass of an object is equal to the total, net external force placed upon the object in motion.Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known.

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### Practical Investigation

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Year 10 Science. Year 9 Science. Physics 1. This achievement standard involves carrying out a practical physics investigation that requires the graphical representation and mathematical description of a linear relationship with direction.Information on this title: education.

Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in Italy by Rotolito Lombarda S.

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN Paperback The questions, answers and annotation in this title were written by the author and have not been produced by Cambridge International Examinations. In an examination, the marks granted might differ from the ones given to the answers found in this material. Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. Every effort has been made to trace the owners of copyright material included in this book.

The publishers would be grateful for any omissions brought to their notice for acknowledgement in future editions of the book. Introduction Investigations in and out of the laboratory have been at the forefront of physics discoveries for most of the last two centuries.

The Cavendish Laboratory, at Cambridge University in England, has seen some of the most remarkable and pioneering discoveries since it was established in the 19th century. Thomson discovered the electron and Ernest Rutherford was able to recreate fission.

Without the art of experimentation, none of these discoveries would have been possible. Practical skills form the backbone of any physics course. It is hoped that, by using this book, you will gain confidence in this exciting and essential area of study. This book has been written to prepare Cambridge IGCSE physics students for both the practical paper and the alternative to practical paper. For either paper, you need to be able to demonstrate a wide range of practical skills.

Through the various investigations and accompanying questions you can build and refine your abilities so that you gain enthusiasm in tackling laboratory work. Aside from the necessary exam preparation, these interesting and enjoyable investigations are intended to kindle a passion for practical physics. Great care has been taken to ensure that this book contains work that is safe and accessible for you to complete.

Before attempting any of these activities, though, make sure that you have read the safety section and are following the safety regulations of the place where you study. Gradient calculations in all topics are extension material and are used in this Workbook to allow students to gain confidence in their graphical skills, and to become comfortable with visualising relationships between variables.

Safety section Despite the fact that Bunsen burners, electrical circuits and chemicals are used on a regular basis, the science laboratory is one of the safest classrooms in a school. This is due to the emphasis on safety and the adherence to precautions and procedures resulting from regular risk assessment. It is imperative that you follow the safety rules set out by your teacher. Your teacher will know the names of materials, and the hazards associated with them, as part of their risk assessment for performing the investigations.

They will share this information with you as part of their safety brief or demonstration of the investigation. You should follow the guidance and the safety precautions in each of the investigations in this book. You should aim to use the safety rules as additional direction to help in planning your own investigations. Here are some precautions that will help to ensure your safety when carrying out most investigations in this workbook. Wear safety spectacles to protect your eyes. Tie back hair and any loose items of clothing.